[THS] Fascism in America: An Overview
psalience at fastmail.fm
Thu Mar 25 16:48:18 CET 2010
"The 15% Solution," Serialization, 3rd Installment: Chapter Two
Published by BuzzFlash on Tue, 03/16/2010 - 2:52pm.
This is the third installment of a project that is likely to extend over a two-year-period
from January, 2010. It is the serialization of a book entitled The 15% Solution: A
Political History of American Fascism, 2001-2022. Under the pseudonym Jonathan
Westminster and fictitious biography, the book is purportedly published in the year
2048 on the 25th Anniversary of the Restoration of Constitutional Democracy in the
Re-United States. It was actually published in 1996 by the Thomas Jefferson Press,
located in Port Jefferson, NY. The copyright is held by the Press. Herein you will find
Fascism in America: An Overview
Author's Commentary: How Fascism Came to the United States
Many lengthy books have been written on the tale of how fascism came to the old
United States. In this chapter I present a brief overview of the process. Some
further description and analysis of the nature of fascism and its advent in the old U.S.
is provided by a Dino Louis essay reproduced in Appendix II. [Editor's note: This is
presently available only in the print version of the book.]
An ever deepening economic decline occurred in the country in the latter part of
the 20th century. The decline was not one that could be measured by the traditional
yardstick of economic progress, the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). It continued to
rise at a modest, non-inflation-producing pace, the latter maintained for the benefit
of the wealthy by the monetary policies of the central bank (the "Federal Reserve").
But an increasing number of economists and other observers came to realize that the
GDP did not tell all there was to tell about either the economy or the state of the
nation (Cobb, et al).
As noted by Michael Lind, Dino Louis, Lester Thurow, and many other observers at
the time, underneath the GDP climb, the poor were getting poorer and more
numerous, the rich were getting richer, and everyone else was experiencing falling
personal incomes and rising levels of personal and economic anxiety (DeParle;
Phillips). Lind called attention to the underlying reasons for this state of affairs, such
as a regressive taxation policy and the export of capital (1995).
Lind also noted that not only were the rich getting richer, but they were going out
of their way to publicly deny the facts of the rising gap between the rich and
everyone else, to create the illusion that it was not happening, and to create the
impression that the causes of the economic malaise affecting almost everybody but
them was caused by anything but them and their policies. The "anything" could be
anything from people of color to immigrants to the poor to the feminists to
homosexuals to environmentalists to the United Nations Organization to the "New
World Order" to "international bankers" (read "Jews").
In fact, as noted by Dino Louis, in a process driven at its base by under-
investment at home and a concomitant export of capital abroad, the economy was
rotting upwards from its foundations, with declining personal incomes, increasing job
insecurity, the disaccumulation of labor from capital, and de-industrialization. The
rotting process was accelerated by the existence of a huge, ever-growing
government debt, created in large part during the 1980s by the policies of Presidents
Ronald Reagan and George Bush.
Reaganite policy, in fact, had within a five-year period from 1981 changed the
financial posture of the country from that of the world's leading creditor nation to
that of the world's leading debtor nation. This borrowing was undertaken to finance
a vast expansion of the U.S. military, at a time when the nation was ostensibly at
peace, and large tax cuts for the wealthy and the large corporations (McIntyre). It
produced a floridly growing economy at the time, for which the Reaganites took
credit, but that was the product of nothing but old-fashioned Keynesian government
pump-priming, although through a very narrow spigot that dropped the largess
almost entirely upon the military-industrial complex.
Thus for many years leading up to this time, American society had been
characterized by economic and social conditions which might have led to civil and/or
labor unrest. But many people were easily distracted from the realities of life and the
true causes of their problems by the above-mentioned strategies of diversion. They
also included a domestic "anti-communist crusade" (against a virtually non-existent
Communist Party), and the foreign "Cold War" against the old Soviet Union (designed
not to "contain" it, as advertised, but to destroy it, which happened). As noted, the
diversionary strategies also included such elements as manufactured racism and
A Transition Era poet and philosopher described the latter strategy well
"Let us be reminded that before there is a final solution, there must be a first
solution, a second one, even a third. The move toward a final solution is not a jump.
It takes one step, then another, then another. Something, perhaps, like this:
"1. Construct an internal enemy, as both focus and diversion.
"2. Isolate and demonize the enemy by unleashing and protecting the utterance
of covert and coded name-calling and verbal abuse. Employ ad hominem attacks as
legitimate charges against that enemy.
"3. Enlist and create sources and distributors of information who are willing to
reinforce the demonizing process because it is profitable, because it grants power
and because it works.
"4. Palisade all art forms; monitor, discredit or expel those that challenge or
destabilize processes of demonization and deification.
"5. Subvert and malign all representatives of sympathizers with this constructed
"6. Solicit, from among the enemy, collaborators who agree with and can sanitize
the dispossession process.
"7. Pathologize the enemy in scholarly and popular mediums; recycle, for example,
scientific racism and the myths of racial superiority in order to naturalize the
"8. Criminalize the enemy. Then prepare, budget for, and rationalize the building
of holding areas for the enemyespecially its males and absolutely its children.
"9. Reward mindlessness and apathy with monumentalized entertainments and
with little pleasures, tiny seductions: a few minutes on television, a few lines in the
press; a little pseudo-success; the illusion of power and influence; a little fun, a little
style, a little consequence.
"10. Maintain, at all costs, silence.
"In 1995 racism may wear a new dress, buy a new pair of boots, but neither it
nor its succubus twin fascism is new or can make anything new. It can only
reproduce the environment that supports its own health: fear, denial and an
atmosphere in which its victims have lost the will to fight."
In this analysis, Morrison retrospectively described the development of German
Nazism in the 1930s based on the then-coming War Against the Jews (Davidowicz).
She also chillingly and accurately prophesied the coming of fascism to America in the
early 21st century through the War Against the Peoples of Color, as the process
described in this book might be called, leading ultimately and inevitably to the
establishment of the New American Republics.
By the time the turn of the 21st century was reached, the economic decline
affecting all sectors of society other than the truly wealthy was quickening, and social
unrest was doing the same. Then it was found by the wealthy and their political
allies that the divisive/distractive strategies which had worked so well for so many
years to keep a relative civil peace began to fail in meeting that objective. This
process led to increasingly violent outbursts on the part of increasing numbers of
people from all walks of life. And some of those outbursts began to focus on such
matters as the widening gap between rich and poor, the loss of employment security,
and the overall decline in the standard of living for most people.
The economic and political decision-makers of the society thus gradually came to
view it as a necessity that significant levels of force and repression be used, or at
least made ready, to prevent the occurrence of full-fledged rebellion. Hence the final
development of the fascist state in the old U.S.. But it had to be realized, if at all
possible, by democratic means.
Why so? Because the democratic tradition was strong in the United States of
America. The tradition, and the basic American concept, "it's a free country," had
been encouraged by the operations of the political system from the time of the
nation's founding as the world's first democracy, however limited at the time, in 1789.
"Free speech" and "freedom from government oppression" were slogans even of
major elements of the Far Right, the foot soldiers of which would eventually and
ironically become the agents of repression on the street and in the camps for the
However, no country had ever previously become fascist by majority vote of the
whole electorate. Even in the Nazi Germany of the 1930s and 40s (where the fascists
had taken power by constitutional means), the highest proportion of a free vote that
the National Socialist (Nazi) Party had ever received was 37% (of a high voter
Just as in pre-World War II Germany, in the old U.S. it is unlikely that fascism, if
openly put to a vote, could ever have attracted a majority of the eligible voters. But
given the realities of voting patterns, that was not necessary for the constitutional
installation of fascism. In the old U.S., even in Presidential elections, any voter
turnout over 50% was considered good. And so, in the late 20th century a strategy
was developed by Right-Wing Reaction through which fascism could be brought to
the old U.S. by Constitutional means, if not true majority vote. It was called "The
"The 15% Solution"
"The 15% Solution" was an electoral strategy developed by the leading political
organ of the Religious Right, the so-called "Christian Coalition" (ADL). The "Christian
Coalition" was an unabashed, unapologetic, and outspoken representative of that
authoritarian thinking (see also Dino Louis' discussion of the nature of fascism in
Appendix II) which under their influence was so prominently represented in the
politics of the Republican Party, beginning at their 1992 National Convention. The
strategy was designed to win elections even when the Coalition's supporters
comprised a distinct minority of the eligible electorate. As an early Christian Coalition
Executive Director, Ralph Reed, once said (Harkin): "I paint my face and travel at
night. You don't know it's over until you're in a body bag."
Although in later public statements, the Christian Coalition made attempts to cover
up or even disavow the strategy, according to its 1991 National Field Director, it was
formulated in the following way (Rodgers):
"In a Presidential election, when more voters turn out than [in] any other election
you normally see, only 15% of eligible voters determine the outcomes of that election
. . . . Of all adults 18 and over, eligible to vote, only about 60 or 65% are actually
registered to vote. It might even be less than that, and it is less than that in many
states. . . .
"Of those registered to vote, in a good turnout only 50% actually vote. [Thus,]
only 30% of those eligible actually vote. . . . 15% of adults eligible to vote determine
the outcome in a high turnout election. That happens once every four years. . . . In
low turnout elections, city council, state legislature, county commissions, the
percentage who [sic] determines who wins can be as low as 6 or 7%. We don't have
to worry about convincing a majority of Americans to agree with us. Most of them
are staying home and watching 'Roseanne'" [emphasis added. Author's Note:
"Roseanne" was a popular television program of that time.]
As one of the most influential leaders of the Religious Right, Paul Weyrich,
succinctly put it (Freedom Writer, Nov., 1994): "We don't want everyone to vote.
Quite frankly, our leverage goes up as the voting population goes down."
Elected allies of the Christian Coalition worked to make this wish a reality. For
example, a Governor of Virginia, George F. Allen, elected in 1992 with open Christian
Coalition support, attempted by the use of the veto to prevent implementation of
Federal legislation designed to make it easier for people to register to vote (NYT).
By the national election of 1994, Right Wing Reaction was well on its way to
achieving its goal. Only about 38% of eligible voters voted. That turnout was part of
the process that came to be referred to as the "Incredible Shrinking Electorate."
With slightly more than half of those voting choosing the old Republican Party's
Congressional candidates that year, the Party achieved a major turnaround in
Congressional representation and took control of that body.
Many of the new representatives were supported by the Christian Coalition and its
allies. In an odd representation of reality, most media and political figures
represented that victory as one reflecting the views of the "American people" as a
whole. In fact, the Republican victory was achieved by garnering the support of
under 20% of the eligible voters. "The 15% Solution" was well within sight.
The political posture adopted by the opposition Democrats played a significant
role in the creation of the Incredible Shrinking Electorate. They gave the majority of
increasingly disaffected people nothing to come out to the polls for but either a
warmed-over imitation of Republican Party policies, or a set of well-intentioned but
The minority of eligible voters who actually supported Republican, and later,
Republican-Christian Alliance, policies turned out and voted for them. Those who
wanted something significantly different, consistent with the liberal tradition of the
Democratic Party, not finding it on the ballot, just stayed home. Implementation of
"The 15% Solution" proceeded apace. It was eventually used by the Right-Wing
Reactionaries to impose their will on the majority of the people. And just like their
German Nazi predecessors, once they gained power through Constitutional means,
they maintained it largely through anything but.
The Apogee of American Fascism
The apogee of fascism in America is generally considered to have been reached
around 2017. By that year, while the old Constitution (see Appendix I) was still
technically in force, the old United States of America had for six years already been
existing as that apartheid nation called the New American Republics. The NAR was
designed along the lines of plans for racial separation which had been developed by
such late 20th century Right-Wing Republican leaders as David Duke of Louisiana
(Patriquin). It was the entirely predictable result of the American Right-Wing
Reactionary movement that had at its core an ideology of black, (genetically-based),
inferiority (Herrnstein and Murray), and explicit or implicit White Supremacy.
There were still two years to go before the Latin Wars in the Fourth Republic
would begin to turn sour and the formal Restoration Declaration would be issued by
the National Leadership Council of the Movement for the Restoration of Constitutional
Democracy in the old United States.
The sole legal political party of the NAR was the American Christian Nation Party
(ACNP). In 2008, President Jefferson Davis Hague had formed it out of the
Republican-Christian Alliance, successor to the old Republican Party. In rhetoric at
least , the NAR was a "Christian Nation," achieving a goal of many leaders of Right-
Wing Reaction in the old U.S. from a wide variety of backgrounds, such as the Rev.
Pat Robertson, the head of the Christian Coalition, a one-time Governor of the state
of Mississippi, Kirk Fordyce, and R.J. Rushdooney, a leader of Christian
Reconstructionism and the Christian Coalition's more secretive 20th century
counterpart, the Coalition on Revival.
Rushdooney, a very influential if not very well-known leader of the Christian Right,
for example "advocated total Christian theocracy and [once] wrote 'Democracy is the
great love of the failures and cowards of life'" (Freedom Writer, Jan., 1995, p. 1). Of
the legal theory of Christian Reconstructionism, the basis for the Supremacy
Amendment (see Chapter nine), one David Barton said (Schollenberger): "Whatever
is Christian is legal. Whatever isn't Christian is illegal."
The NAR consisted of four "Republics." The "White Republic" controlled most of
the territory of the old United States, as well as that of the four western Provinces of
the old Canada. The "Black Republic," in some ways like the Black "Bantustans" of
pre-liberation South Africa in the 20th century, was a series of disconnected, walled-
off, "provinces" consisting of selected, old, predominantly black "inner cities," carved
out of the old U.S. All blacks in the country not already living in what became the
collective territory of the republic had been forcibly moved and confined to one
"province" or another.
Similarly, the "Red Republic" was based on a set of walled-off former Indian
Reservations to the west of the Mississippi, to which all Native Americans had been
moved and confined. Fourth was to have been the Hispanic Republic, consisting of
all the nations of Latin America, to which, coincidentally, all persons of Hispanic
(Latino) origin living in the old U.S. were to have been deported. Full deportation
was never achieved by the NAR government, just as full control of Latin America was
never achieved either. But a "Killer Fence" (see Chapter 15) had been constructed
along the length of the old U.S.-Mexican border, and the Fourth Republic was on the
How did all of this come to pass legislatively, one might ask. In brief, through the
use of "The 15% Solution," Right-Wing Reaction had by the national election of 2004
taken full control of the Congress and the Executive Branch at the Federal level, and
of more than 38 state governments. (The assent of 38 state legislatures was required
for the ratification of any Constitutional Amendment.)
And where, one might also ask, was the Federal Supreme Court in all of this?
Well, it had not reviewed actions of the other two branches of the Federal
government for their constitutionality since it had handed down the Anderson
Decision in 2003. In that decision (see Chapter five), based on the strict Borkian
interpretation of the Doctrine of Original Intent, the Court removed from itself the
power to review the actions of the other two branches of the Federal government for
their Constitutionality. The Court was thus out of the picture. Anderson was the
most far-reaching Supreme Court decision in U.S. history since "Dred Scott" of 1857.
In one sense, Anderson set the stage for the Second Civil War just as Dred Scott had
set the stage for the First.
The Social Profile of the NAR
The very existence of the New American Republics in 2017 was the at least partly
predictable result of policies that the American Christian Nation Party and its
predecessors had been advocating and at times implementing for many years leading
up to the NAR's creation in 2011. The social profile of the White Republic was fully
predictable. It was just what Right-Wing Reaction had told the American people it
would impose upon them if it ever got complete power. These changes were
achieved largely through a series of Constitutional amendments which the Right-Wing
Reactionary dominated national and state legislatures were able to adopt with ease in
the first decade of the 21st century, even before the establishment of the NAR (see
Chapters four, seven, eight, nine and twelve).
Freedom of speech was a thing of the past, except on paper. "Christian
Thinking," as defined by the ACNP and based on the "Innerant Bible," as interpreted
by the ACNP, was the only way of thinking acceptable throughout the White
Republic. People not accepting "Christian Thinking" who did not keep their thoughts
to themselves were subject to a wide variety of penalties, from loss of employment (a
practice previewed in the old United States by the so-called "black-listing" practice of
the "McCarthy Era" of the 1950s) to confinement in a "drug rehabilitation" camp.
Freedom of the press and the media in general was also a thing of the past.
Although all media outlets, newspapers, radio, television, and political virtual reality
were privately owned, they were all licensed and no one who was not known to be
an absolute supporter of ACNP policy could get a license. Freedom of choice in the
outcome of pregnancy had long since vanished. The public school system that had
been developed in the old United States since the early 19th century had ceased to
exist, replaced by a combination of public and private religious schools and home-
based education. Sex education and the provision of contraceptives were banned.
Homosexuality had been made a crime. The old "welfare" system had been
terminated completely, and the principal remaining achievement of the "New Deal"
of the President Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1933-1945), the Social Security System,
had been dismantled by a process Right-Wing Reaction called "Privatization."
The 16th Amendment (providing for a Federal income tax) had been repealed.
Subject to Congressional review, the President had been given the power to rule by
proclamation in "times of national emergency" (very similar to the "Enabling Act"
passed by the German Reichstag [parliament] in the early days of the Hitlerian
Chancellorship which gave him, through the democratic process, the authority to rule
by decree [Shirer]).
By Constitutional amendment as well, the "Laws of God" were established as
superior to those of the Constitution. (Although at the time of the Supremacy
Amendment's ratification there had been some controversy about just what the
phrase "Laws of God" meant, as noted, upon the creation of the NAR the ACNP
proclaimed that thenceforth it would make all such determinations.) The 13th, 14th,
and 15th amendments to the old Constitution had been repealed, under the Borkist
theory of "Original Intent."
Economically, as a result of the previously noted under-investment in both the
private and public sectors, manufacturing, the basis of American world-wide
economic dominance for most of the second half of the 20th century, had declined to
a very low level. However, all limitations on lumbering and coal mining had been
eliminated, in order to establish what the ACNP called a "Resource Based Economy."
That had made the takeover of the four Western Canadian Provinces with their
largely untapped coal and timber reserves essential, and had at the same time
reduced the NAR to the status of what in the 20th century had been called a "Third
World" raw materials exporting country, although one operating at a very high level.
But a one-party, theocratic state, based on a racist theory of human existence,
with a continually declining standard of living, and a significant number of oppressed
people under its thumb, even if it came to power by democratic means, cannot
maintain that power without the use of brute force. The history of all other such
countries demonstrated that fact. Thus there was a national police force called "The
Helmsmen," "those with their hands on the helm of the ship of God's state."
The Helmsmen enforced ACNP rule and rules, legally and extra-legally (although
there were no legal means to combat their extra-legal use of force). Having both a
public and a secret face, it had much in common with the Schutzstaffel (SS) of the
old Nazi Germany. A series of camps, under the control of the Helmsmen (as the
"Concentration Camps" of Nazi Germany had been under the control of the SS), were
located on closed former military bases. They had been originally established by one
of the first acts of "The Last Republican," President Carnathon Pine (2001-2004), as
part of the "Real Drug War" he had announced in his Inaugural Address of 2001 (see
the next Chapter).
Well before 2017, the camps had been adapted to the broader purpose of
confining, in not too pleasant surroundings, opponents of the regime. (The camps
were, however, not nearly as unpleasant as the extermination camp for
"homosexuals" which would be set up in 2020 as part of the "Second Final Solution"
[see Chapter 18].) As noted, the Mexican border had long since been closed with a
pro-active, at times seemingly life-like, "Killer Fence." More advanced versions of the
"Killer Fence" were used to completely isolate the "Provinces" of both the Black and
And that, in brief, is a picture of the NAR in 2017. This book will fill in that
picture, will add color, depth, and focus to it, by tracing the history of the Fascist
Period through a description and analysis of the documents which shaped it, and by
hearing the voices of a few of those who lived it. In brief here is presented an
overview of that documentary history.
The Documentary Trail of American Fascism
2001 The Inauguration of President Pine, the Last Republican, and the Declaration
of the Real Drug War.
2002 The "Preserve America" (30th) Amendment to the Constitution. It provided that
henceforth no person could become a citizen of the United States unless at least one
parent were a citizen of the United States.
2003 The Supreme Court decision in Anderson v. the United States. It reversed the
early landmark decisions by the Court of Chief Justice John Marshall, from Marbury v.
Madison (1801) to McColluch v. Maryland (1823), which had originally established the
Supreme Court's power to review and void on Constitutional grounds Executive and
Legislative branch actions, a power nowhere to be explicitly found in the Constitution.
2004 The First Inaugural Address of President Jefferson Davis Hague (delivered from
the National Cathedral on Christmas Day). He had won the Presidency as the
candidate of the new Republican-Christian Alliance.
2005 The Morality (31st) Amendment to the Constitution. It outlawed abortion under
any circumstances; prohibited any teaching in any educational institution on any
matters concerning sexual functioning; declared homosexuality to be a matter of
choice and denied any civil rights protections to homosexual persons; prohibited all
forms of Federal, state, or local government funded outdoor relief for the poor; and
repealed the 16th Amendment (which had established the income tax).
2006 The Balancing (32nd) Amendment to the Constitution. It required a balanced
Federal budget, with no provisions for exceptions; required a two-thirds vote of the
membership of each House of Congress for the approval of any tax increase;
established a line-item veto; repealed the Fourth Amendment (prohibiting
unreasonable search and seizure); and gave the President the power to declare
"special emergencies" during which he could rule by decree.
2007 The Supremacy (33rd) Amendment to the Constitution. It gave the President
and/or the Congress the power to declare the Laws of God as superior to those of the
Constitution. It bound all judges, Federal and state, to abide by the terms of the
amendment. It allowed the establishment of religious tests for any elected or
appointed government official. Finally, it guaranteed organized prayer in the public
2008 Hague's Second Inaugural. He announced the planned conversion of the
Republican-Christian Alliance into the American Christian Nation Party.
2009 The Proclamation of Right of 2009. It made homosexuality a crime.
2010 The Original Intention (34th) Amendment to the Constitution. It repealed the
13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments to the Constitution (that had, respectively,
abolished slavery, among other things applied the due process guarantee of the 5th
Amendment to the states, and guaranteed the right to vote to former slaves and
other persons of color).
2011 The Declaration of Peace. On July 4 of that year, it established the New
American Republics (NAR).
2013 The Natural Resources Access Act. Among other things, it terminated the
National Parks and National Forests systems.
2015 The National Plan for Social Peace. It was intended, among other things, to
deal with the many social and legal problems not solved and/or created by the Fascist
Period Constitutional Amendments.
2017 The Legitimation Treaty of 2017. This tri-partite Treaty, between the NAR, the
rump Canadian government based in the Maritime Provinces, and the Republic of
Quebec (RQ), recognized the independence of the RQ, the annexation of the
Western Canadian provinces to the White Republic of the NAR, and the partition of
the former Canadian Province of Ontario between the NAR and the RQ.
2019 The Restoration Declaration. The first formal statement by the new National
Leadership Council of the Movement for the Restoration of Constitutional Democracy,
which for the first time joined together previously unconnected resistance movements
in the Four Republics.
2020 The Second Final Solution (the Second Holocaust). It was a secret program,
purportedly designed to exterminate the remaining homosexual population in the
NAR. However, its real purpose was to exterminate, without involving the local
messiness created by the Death Squads, any opponents of the regime it could find.
2021 - 2023 The intervention by the East Asian Confederation in 2021, the successful
conclusion of the Second Civil War in 2022, and the Restoration of Constitutional
Democracy in 2023. Restoration formally dissolved the NAR (in the process formally
liberating the Latin American countries), recognized the establishment of the Federal
Republic of Canada within the former Canadian boundaries, including Quebec, with
the re-establishment of the former U.S.-Canadian border, and created the Re-United
States of America. The new Constitution, based in many ways on the old but in
many ways different too, featured strengthened protections for individual freedom
and liberty, and strengthened governmental powers for intervention in the operations
of the economy.
ADL: Anti-Defamation League, The Religious Right: The Assault on Tolerance &
Pluralism in America, New York: 1994, pp. 31-39.
Cobb, C., Halstead, T., and Rowe, J., "If the GDP Is Up, Why Is America Down?" The
Atlantic Monthly, October, 1995, p. 59.
Davidowicz, L.S., The War Against the Jews, 1933-1945, New York: Holt, Rinehart,
and Winston, 1975.
DeParle, J., "Census Sees Falling Income and More Poor," New York Times, October
Freedom Writer, "Church Organization is key to Coalition's success," November, 1994,
Freedom Writer, "Profile Chalcedon," January, 1995, p. 1.
Freedom Writer, "Concerned About Concerned Women of America," January, 1995,
Harkin, T., Fund-raising letter, Washington, DC: July, 1995.
Herrnstein, R.J. and Murray, C., The Bell Curve, New York: The Free Press, 1994.
Lind, M., "To Have And Have Not," Harper's Magazine, June, 1995, p. 35.
McIntyre, R.S., "The Populist Tax Act of 1989," The Nation, April 2, 1988, p. 445.
Morrison, T., "Racism and Fascism," The Nation, May 29, 1995, p. 760.
NYT: New York Times, "U.S. Countersues Virginia Over Motor Voter Law," July 9,
Patriquin, R., "Duke plan calls for dividing America," Shreveport Journal, February 7,
Phillips, K., The Politics of Rich and Poor, New York: Random House, 1990.
Rodgers, G., "Turning Out the Christian Vote in 1992," Christian Coalition Conference
held at Regent University, Virginia Beach, VA, Nov. 15-16, 1991 (partial transcript, p.
Schollenberger, J., "Concerned About Concerned Women for America," The
Freedom Writer, January, 1995, p. 3.
Shirer, W.L., The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich, New York: Simon and Schuster,
1960, pp. 198-200.
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